Wednesday, September 26, 2012


Data Pump Export(Unit II)

What Is Data Pump Export?

Data Pump Export is a utility for unloading data and metadata into a set of operating system files called a dump file set. The dump file set can be imported only by the Data Pump Import utility. The dump file set can be imported on the same system or it can be moved to another system and loaded there.

The dump file set is made up of one or more disk files that contain table data, database object metadata, and control information. The files are written in a proprietary, binary format. During an import operation, the Data Pump Import utility uses these files to locate each database object in the dump file set.

Because the dump files are written by the server, rather than by the client, the data base administrator (DBA) must create directory objects. Data Pump Export enables you to specify that a job should move a subset of the data and metadata, as determined by the export mode.

Invoking Data Pump Export

The Data Pump Export utility is invoked using the expdp command. The characteristics of the export operation are determined by the Export parameters you specify. These parameters can be specified either on the command line or in a parameter file.


  • Do not invoke Export as SYSDBA, except at the request of Oracle technical support. SYSDBA is used internally and has specialized functions; its behavior is not the same as for general users.
  • It is not possible to start or restart Data Pump jobs on one instance in a Real Application Clusters (RAC) environment if there are Data Pump jobs currently running on other instances in the RAC environment.

Data Pump Export Interfaces

You can interact with Data Pump Export by using a command line, a parameter file, or an interactive-command mode.

  • Command-Line Interface: Enables you to specify most of the Export parameters directly on the command line. For a complete description of the parameters available in the command-line interface.
  • Parameter File Interface: Enables you to specify command-line parameters in a parameter file. The only exception is the PARFILE parameter, because parameter files cannot be nested. The use of parameter files is recommended if you are using parameters whose values require quotation marks.
  • Interactive-Command Interface: Stops logging to the terminal and displays the Export prompt, from which you can enter various commands, some of which are specific to interactive-command mode. This mode is enabled by pressing Ctrl+C during an export operation started with the command-line interface or the parameter file interface. Interactive-command mode is also enabled when you attach to an executing or stopped job.


Data Pump Export Modes

Full Export Mode

A full export is specified using the FULL parameter. In a full database export, the entire database is unloaded. This mode requires that you have the EXP_FULL_DATABASE role.

Schema Mode

A schema export is specified using the SCHEMAS parameter. This is the default export mode. If you have the EXP_FULL_DATABASE role, then you can specify a list of schemas and optionally include the schema definitions themselves, as well as system privilege grants to those schemas. If you do not have the EXP_FULL_DATABASE role, you can export only your own schema.

Cross-schema references are not exported unless the referenced schema is also specified in the list of schemas to be exported. For example, a trigger defined on a table within one of the specified schemas, but that resides in a schema not explicitly specified, is not exported. This is also true for external type definitions upon which tables in the specified schemas depend. In such a case, it is expected that the type definitions already exist in the target instance at import time.

Table Mode

A table export is specified using the TABLES parameter. In table mode, only a specified set of tables, partitions, and their dependent objects are unloaded. You must have the EXP_FULL_DATABASE role to specify tables that are not in your own schema. All specified tables must reside in a single schema. Note that type definitions for columns are not exported in table mode. It is expected that the type definitions already exist in the target instance at import time. Also, as in schema exports, cross-schema references are not exported.

Tablespace Mode

A tablespace export is specified using the TABLESPACES parameter. In tablespace mode, only the tables contained in a specified set of tablespaces are unloaded. If a table is unloaded, its dependent objects are also unloaded. Both object metadata and data are unloaded. In tablespace mode, if any part of a table resides in the specified set, then that table and all of its dependent objects are exported. Privileged users get all tables. Nonprivileged users get only the tables in their own schemas.

Transportable Tablespace Mode

A transportable tablespace export is specified using the TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES parameter. In transportable tablespace mode, only the metadata for the tables (and their dependent objects) within a specified set of tablespaces are unloaded. This allows the tablespace datafiles to then be copied to another Oracle database and incorporated using transportable tablespace import. This mode requires that you have the EXP_FULL_DATABASE role.

Unlike tablespace mode, transportable tablespace mode requires that the specified tables be completely self-contained. That is, the partitions of all tables in the set must also be in the set. Transportable tablespace exports cannot be restarted once stopped. Also, they cannot have a degree of parallelism greater than 1.

Network Considerations

You can specify a connect identifier in the connect string when you invoke the Data Pump Export utility. This identifier can specify a database instance that is different from the current instance identified by the current Oracle System ID (SID). The connect identifier can be an Oracle*Net connect descriptor or a name that maps to a connect descriptor. This requires an active listener (to start the listener, enter lsnrctl start) that can be located using the connect descriptor. The following example invokes Export for user hr, using the connect descriptor named inst1:

expdp hr/hr@inst1 DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr.dmp TABLES=employees

The local Export client connects to the database instance identified by the connect descriptor inst1  to export the data on that instance.

Do not confuse invoking the Export utility using a connect identifier with an export operation specifying the Export NETWORK_LINK command-line parameter, which initiates an export via a database link. In this case, the local Export client connects to the database instance identified by the command-line connect string, retrieves the data to be exported from the database instance identified by the database link, and writes the data to a dump file set on the connected database instance.


Filtering During Export Operations

Data Pump Export provides much greater data and metadata filtering capability than was provided by the original Export utility.

Data Filters

Data specific filtering is implemented through the QUERY and SAMPLE parameters, which specify restrictions on the table rows that are to be exported. Data filtering can also occur indirectly as a result of metadata filtering, which can include or exclude table objects along with any associated row data. Each data filter can be specified once per table within a job. If different filters using the same name are applied to both a particular table and to the whole job, the filter parameter supplied for the specific table will take precedence.

Metadata Filters

Metadata filtering is implemented through the EXCLUDE and INCLUDE parameters. The EXCLUDE and INCLUDE parameters are mutually exclusive. Metadata filters identify a set of objects to be included or excluded from an Export or Import operation. For example, you could request a full export, but without Package Specifications or Package Bodies.

To use filters correctly and to get the results you expect, remember that dependent objects of an identified object are processed along with the identified object. For example, if a filter specifies that an index is to be included in an operation, then statistics from that index will also be included. Likewise, if a table is excluded by a filter, then indexes, constraints, grants, and triggers upon the table will also be excluded by the filter.

If multiple filters are specified for an object type, an implicit AND operation is applied to them. That is, objects pertaining to the job must pass all of the filters applied to their object types. The same metadata filter name can be specified multiple times within a job.

To see which objects can be filtered, you can perform queries on the following views: DATABASE_EXPORT_OBJECTS, SCHEMA_EXPORT_OBJECTS, and TABLE_EXPORT_ OBJECTS.

  For example, you could perform the following query:


Parameters Available in Export's Command-Line Mode


ATTACH :  job currently in the user's schema, if there is only one. Attaches the client session to an existing export job and automatically places you in the interactive-command interface. Export displays a description of the job to which you are attached and also displays the Export prompt.

ATTACH [=[schema_name.]job_name]

The schema_name is optional. To specify a schema other than your own, you must have the EXP_FULL_DATABASE role.  The job_name is optional if only one export job is associated with your schema and the job is active. To attach to a stopped job, you must supply the job name. To see a list of Data Pump job names, you can query the DBA_DATAPUMP_JOBS view or the USER_DATAPUMP_JOBS view. When you are attached to the job, Export displays a description of the job and then displays the Export prompt.

When you specify the ATTACH parameter, you cannot specify any other parameters except for the connection string (user/password). You cannot attach to a job in another schema unless it is already running. If the dump file set or master table for the job have been deleted, the attach operation will fail. Altering the master table in any way will lead to unpredictable results.

> expdp hr/hr ATTACH=hr.export_job


COMPRESSION: Default: METADATA_ONLY.  Specifies whether to compress metadata before writing to the dump file set.

compression={all | data_only | metadata_only | none}

Following is an example:

$expdp full=yes userid="'/ as sysdba'"  dumpfile=dbadir:full.compress.dmp compression=all

METADATA_ONLY results in all metadata being written to the dump file in compressed format. This is the default.

  • NONE disables compression for the entire unload.

> expdp hr/hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr_comp.dmp COMPRESSION=METADATA_ONLY

This command will execute a schema-mode export that will compress all metadata before writing it out to the dump file, hr_comp.dmp. It defaults to a schema-mode export because no export mode is specified.


CONTENT: Default: ALL. Enables you to filter what Export unloads: data only, metadata only, or both.


  • ALL unloads both data and metadata. This is the default.
  • DATA_ONLY unloads only table row data; no database object definitions are unloaded.
  • METADATA_ONLY unloads only database object definitions; no table row data is unloaded.

The CONTENT=METADATA_ONLY parameter cannot be used in conjunction with the parameter TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES (transportable-tablespace-mode).

> expdp hr/hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr.dmp CONTENT=METADATA_ONLY

This command will execute a schema-mode export that will unload only the metadata associated with the hr schema. It defaults to a schema-mode export of the hr schema because no export mode is specified.


DIRECTORY: Default: DATA_PUMP_DIR. Specifies the default location to which Export can write the dump file set and the log file.


The directory_object is the name of a database directory object (not the name of an actual directory) . Upon installation, privileged users have access to a default directory object named DATA_PUMP_DIR. Users with access to DATA_PUMP_DIR need not use the DIRECTORY parameter at all. A directory object specified on the DUMPFILE or LOGFILE parameter overrides any directory object that you specify for the DIRECTORY parameter.

> expdp hr/hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=employees.dmp CONTENT=METADATA_ONLY


DUMPFILE: Default: expdat.dmp. Specifies the names, and optionally, the directory objects of dump files for an export job.

DUMPFILE=[directory_object:]file_name [, ...]

The directory_object is optional if one has already been established by the DIRECTORY parameter. If you supply a value here, it must be a directory object that already exists and that you have access to. A database directory object that is specified as part of the DUMPFILE parameter overrides a value specified by the DIRECTORY parameter or by the default directory object.

You can supply multiple file_name specifications as a comma-delimited list or in separate DUMPFILE parameter specifications. If no extension is given for the filename, then Export uses the default file extension of .dmp. The filenames can contain a substitution variable (%U), which implies that multiple files may be generated. The substitution variable is expanded in the resulting filenames into a 2-digit, fixed-width, incrementing integer starting at 01 and ending at 99. If a file specification contains two substitution variables, both are incremented at the same time. For example, exp%Uaa%U.dmp would resolve to exp01aa01.dmp, exp02aa02.dmp, and so forth.

If the FILESIZE parameter is specified, each dump file will have a maximum of that size in bytes and be nonextensible. If more space is required for the dump file set and a template with a substitution variable (%U) was supplied, a new dump file is automatically created of the size specified by FILESIZE, if there is room on the device.

As each file specification or file template containing a substitution variable is defined, it is instantiated into one fully qualified filename and Export attempts to create it. The file specifications are processed in the order in which they are specified. If the job needs extra files because the maximum file size is reached, or to keep parallel workers active, then additional files are created if file templates with substitution variables were specified.

If there are preexisting files that match the resulting filenames, an error is generated. The existing dump files will not be overwritten.

> expdp hr/hr SCHEMAS=hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=dpump_dir2:exp1.dmp,exp2%U.dmp PARALLEL=3

The dump file, exp1.dmp, will be written to the path associated with the directory object dpump_dir2 because dpump_dir2 was specified as part of the dump file name, and therefore overrides the directory object specified with the DIRECTORY parameter. Because all three parallel processes will be given work to perform during this job, the exp201.dmp and exp202.dmp dump files will be created and they will be written to the path associated with the directory object, dpump_dir1, that was specified with the DIRECTORY parameter.


In Oracle 11g data pump export utility, the new parameter REUSE_DUMPFILES enables you to overwrite a preexisting dump file. Following is an example:

expdp hr DIRECTORY=dp_dir DUMPFILE=hr.dmp TABLES=employees REUSE_DUMPFILES=y


ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD: Default: none. Specifies a key for encrypting encrypted column data in the export dumpfile.


The password value that is supplied specifies a key for re-encrypting encrypted table columns so that they are not written as clear text in the dump file set. If the export operation involves encrypted table columns, but an encryption password is not supplied, then the encrypted columns will be written to the dump file set as clear text and a warning will be issued. To use the ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter, you must have Transparent Data Encryption set up.

Note:  There is no connection or dependency between the key specified with the Data Pump ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter and the key specified with the ENCRYPT keyword when the table with encrypted columns was initially created. For example, suppose a table is created as follows, with an encrypted column whose key is xyz:


When you export the emp table, you can supply any arbitrary value for ENCRYPTION _PASSWORD. It does not have to be xyz.

The ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter applies only to columns that already have encrypted data. Data Pump neither provides nor supports encryption of entire dump files.

For network exports, the ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter is not supported with user-defined external tables that have encrypted columns. The table will be skipped and an error message will be displayed, but the job will continue.

Encryption attributes for all columns must match between the exported table definition and the target table. For example, suppose you have a table, EMP, and one of its columns is named EMPNO. Both of the following situations would result in an error because the encryption attribute for the EMP column in the source table would not match the encryption attribute for the EMP column in the target table:

  • The EMP table is exported with the EMPNO column being encrypted, but prior to importing the table you remove the encryption attribute from the EMPNO column.
  • The EMP table is exported without the EMPNO column being encrypted, but prior to importing the table you enable encryption on the EMPNO column.

expdp hr/hr TABLES=employee_s_encrypt DIRECTORY=dpump_dir DUMPFILE=dpcd2be1.dmp ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD=123456


To secure the exported  dump  file, the following  new  parameters are presented in Oracle 11g Data pump:

ENCRYPTION, ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD and ENCRYPTION_ALGORITHM. To enable encryption, you must specify either  the ENCRYPTION or ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter, or both. Those parameters are valid only in the Enterprise Edition of Oracle Database 11g.


This parameter specifies whether or not to encrypt data before writing it to the dump file set. The default value depends upon the combination of encryption-related parameters that are used. If only the ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter is specified, then the  ENCRYPTION parameter defaults to  ALL. If neither  ENCRYPTION nor ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD is specified, then ENCRYPTION defaults to NONE.

The ENCRYPTION parameter has the following options:

ENCRYPTION = {all | data_only | encrypted_columns_only | metadata_only | none}

Following is an example:

expdp hr DUMPFILE=dp_dir.hr_enc.dmp JOB_NAME=enc ENCRYPTION=data_only




This parameter specifies which cryptographic algorithm should be used to perform the encryption. Following is its syntax:


The  ENCRYPTION_ALGORITHM parameter requires that you also specify either the  ENCRYPTION or ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD parameter.

 Following is an example:

expdp hr DIRECTORY=dp_dir DUMPFILE=hr_enc.dmp /




This parameter works the same way the encryption mode was operating in RMAN in Oracle 10g. It specifies the type of security to use when encryption and decryption are performed. It syntax is as follows


PASSWORD mode requires that you provide a password when creating encrypted dump file sets.

TRANSPARENT mode allows an encrypted dump file set to be created without any intervention from a database

administrator (DBA), provided the required Oracle Encryption Wallet is available.

DUAL mode creates a dump file set that can later be imported either transparently or by specifying a password that was used when the dual-mode encrypted dump file set was created.

Following is an example:

expdp hr DIRECTORY=dp_dir DUMPFILE=hr_enc.dmp




ESTIMATE : Default: BLOCKS. Specifies the method that Export will use to estimate how much disk space each table in the export job will consume (in bytes). The estimate is printed in the log file and displayed on the client's standard output device. The estimate is for table row data only; it does not include metadata.


  • BLOCKS - The estimate is calculated by multiplying the number of database blocks used by the source objects, times the appropriate block sizes.
  • STATISTICS - The estimate is calculated using statistics for each table. For this method to be as accurate as possible, all tables should have been analyzed recently.

If the Data Pump export job involves compressed tables, the default size estimation given for the compressed table is inaccurate when ESTIMATE=BLOCKS is used. This is because the size estimate does not reflect that the data was stored in a compressed form. To get a more accurate size estimate for compressed tables, use ESTIMATE=STATISTICS.

> expdp hr/hr TABLES=employees ESTIMATE=STATISTICS DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=estimate_stat.dmp


ESTIMATE_ONLY: Default: n. Instructs Export to estimate the space that a job would consume, without actually performing the export operation.


If ESTIMATE_ONLY=y, then Export estimates the space that would be consumed, but quits without actually performing the export operation.



EXCLUDE: Default: none.  Enables you to filter the metadata that is exported by specifying objects and object types that you want excluded from the export operation.

EXCLUDE=object_type[:name_clause] [, ...]

All object types for the given mode of export will be included except those specified in an EXCLUDE statement. If an object is excluded, all of its dependent objects are also excluded. For example, excluding a table will also exclude all indexes and triggers on the table.

The name_clause is optional. It allows selection of specific objects within an object type. It is a SQL expression used as a filter on the type's object names. It consists of a SQL operator and the values against which the object names of the specified type are to be compared. The name clause applies only to object types whose instances have names (for example, it is applicable to TABLE, but not to GRANT). The name clause must be separated from the object type with a colon and enclosed in double quotation marks, because single-quotation marks are required to delimit the name strings. For example, you could set EXCLUDE=INDEX:"LIKE 'EMP%'" to exclude all indexes whose names start with emp.

If no name_clause is provided, all objects of the specified type are excluded. More than one EXCLUDE statement can be specified.

Oracle recommends that you place EXCLUDE clauses in a parameter file to avoid having to use escape characters on the command line. If the object_type you specify is CONSTRAINT, GRANT, or USER, you should be aware of the effects this will have, as described in the following paragraphs.

Excluding Constraints

  • NOT NULL constraints
  • Constraints needed for the table to be created and loaded successfully; for example, primary key constraints for index-organized tables, or REF SCOPE and WITH ROWID constraints for tables with REF columns.

This means that the following EXCLUDE statements will be interpreted as follows:

  • EXCLUDE=CONSTRAINT will exclude all (nonreferential) constraints, except for NOT NULL constraints and any constraints needed for successful table creation and loading.
  • EXCLUDE=REF_CONSTRAINT will exclude referential integrity (foreign key) constraints.

Specifying EXCLUDE=GRANT excludes object grants on all object types and system privilege grants. Specifying EXCLUDE=USER excludes only the definitions of users, not the objects contained within users' schemas.


If you try to exclude a user by using a statement such as EXCLUDE=USER:"='HR'", then only the information used in CREATE USER hr DDL statements will be excluded, and you may not get the results you expect. The EXCLUDE and INCLUDE parameters are mutually exclusive.

> expdp hr/hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr_exclude.dmp  EXCLUDE=VIEW,PACKAGE, FUNCTION


FILESIZE: Default: 0 (unlimited).  Specifies the maximum size of each dump file. If the size is reached for any member of the dump file set, that file is closed and an attempt is made to create a new file, if the file specification contains a substitution variable.

FILESIZE=integer[B | K | M | G]

The integer can be followed by B, K, M, or G (indicating bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, and gigabytes respectively). Bytes is the default. The actual size of the resulting file may be rounded down slightly to match the size of the internal blocks used in dump files.

The minimum size for a file is ten times the default Data Pump block size, which is 4 kilobytes.

> expdp hr/hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr_3m.dmp FILESIZE=3M

If three megabytes had not been sufficient to hold all the exported data, then the following error would have been displayed and the job would have stopped:

ORA-39095: Dump file space has been exhausted: Unable to allocate 217088 bytes

The actual number of bytes that could not be allocated may vary. Also, this number does not represent the amount of space needed to complete the entire export operation. It indicates only the size of the current object that was being exported when the job ran out of dump file space.This situation can be corrected by first attaching to the stopped job, adding one or more files using the ADD_FILE command, and then restarting the operation.


FLASHBACK_SCN:  Default: none.  Specifies the system change number (SCN) that Export will use to enable the Flashback Query utility.


The export operation is performed with data that is consistent as of the specified SCN. If the NETWORK_LINK parameter is specified, the SCN refers to the SCN of the source database. FLASHBACK_SCN and FLASHBACK_TIME are mutually exclusive.

> expdp hr/hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr_scn.dmp FLASHBACK_SCN=384632


FLASHBACK_TIME:  Default: none.  The SCN that most closely matches the specified time is found, and this SCN is used to enable the Flashback utility. The export operation is performed with data that is consistent as of this SCN.


Because the TO_TIMESTAMP value is enclosed in quotation marks, it would be best to put this parameter in a parameter file. Otherwise, you might need to use escape characters on the command line in front of the quotation marks. FLASHBACK_TIME and FLASHBACK_SCN are mutually exclusive.

>expdp hr/hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr_time.dmp
FLASHBACK_TIME="TO_TIMESTAMP('25-08-2003 14:35:00', 'DD-MM-YYYY HH24:MI:SS')"


FULL: Default: n. Specifies that you want to perform a full database mode export.

FULL={y | n}

FULL=y indicates that all data and metadata are to be exported.

  • The following system schemas are not exported as part of a Full export because the metadata they contain is exported as part of other objects in the dump file set: SYS, ORDSYS, EXFSYS, MDSYS, DMSYS, CTXSYS, ORDPLUGINS, LBACSYS, XDB, SI_INFORMTN_SCHEMA, DIP, DBSNMP, and WMSYS.
  • Grants on objects owned by the SYS schema are never exported.

> expdp hr/hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir2 DUMPFILE=expfull.dmp FULL=y NOLOGFILE=y

HELP : Default: N. Displays online help for the Export utility.

HELP = {y | n}
> expdp HELP = y


INCLUDE:  Default: none.  Enables you to filter the metadata that is exported by specifying objects and object types for the current export mode. The specified objects and all their dependent objects are exported. Grants on these objects are also exported.

INCLUDE = object_type[:name_clause] [, ...]

Only object types explicitly specified in INCLUDE statements, and their dependent objects, are exported. No other object types, including the schema definition information that is normally part of a schema-mode export when you have the EXP_FULL_DATABASE role, are exported.

To see a list of valid object type path names for use with the INCLUDE parameter, you can query the following views: DATABASE_EXPORT_OBJECTS, SCHEMA_EXPORT_OBJECTS,  and TABLE_EXPORT_OBJECTS.


You could then use the hr.par file to start an export operation, without having to enter any other parameters on the command line:

> expdp hr/hr parfile=hr.par
> expdp hr/hr INCLUDE=TABLE DUMPFILE=dpump_dir1:exp_inc.dmp NOLOGFILE=y


JOB_NAME:  Default: system-generated name of the form SYS_EXPORT_<mode>_NN

Used to identify the export job in subsequent actions, such as when the ATTACH parameter is used to attach to a job, or to identify the job using the DBA_DATAPUMP_JOBS or USER_DATAPUMP_JOBS views. The job name becomes the name of the master table in the current user's schema. The master table is used to control the export job.


The jobname_string specifies a name of up to 30 bytes for this export job. The bytes must represent printable characters and spaces. If spaces are included, the name must be enclosed in single quotation marks (for example, 'Thursday Export'). The job name is implicitly qualified by the schema of the user performing the export operation.

The default job name is system-generated in the form SYS_EXPORT_<mode>_NN, where NN expands to a 2-digit incrementing integer starting at 01. An example of a default name is 'SYS_EXPORT_TABLESPACE_02'.

> expdp hr/hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=exp_job.dmp JOB_NAME=exp_job NOLOGFILE=y

LOGFILE:  Default: export.log. Specifies the name, and optionally, a directory, for the log file of the export job.


All messages regarding work in progress, work completed, and errors encountered are written to the log file. (For a real-time status of the job, use the STATUS command in interactive mode.). A log file is always created for an export job unless the NOLOGFILE parameter is specified. As with the dump file set, the log file is relative to the server and not the client. An existing file matching the filename will be overwritten.

> expdp hr/hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr.dmp LOGFILE=hr_export.log

Note:  Data Pump Export writes the log file using the database character set. If your client NLS_LANG environment setting sets up a different client character set from the database character set, then it is possible that table names may be different in the log file than they are when displayed on the client output screen.


NETWORK_LINK:  Default: none.   Enables an export from a (source) database identified by a valid database link. The data from the source database instance is written to a dump file set on the connected database instance.


The NETWORK_LINK parameter initiates an export using a database link. This means that the system to which the expdp client is connected contacts the source database referenced by the source_database_link, retrieves data from it, and writes the data to a dump file set back on the connected system.

The source_database_link provided must be the name of a database link to an available database. If the database on that instance does not already have a database link, you or your DBA must create one. If the source database is read-only, then the user on the source database must have a locally managed tablespace assigned as the default temporary tablespace. Otherwise, the job will fail.

When the NETWORK_LINK parameter is used in conjunction with the TABLES parameter, only whole tables can be exported (not partitions of tables). The only types of database links supported by Data Pump Export are: public, fixed-user, and connected-user. Current-user database links are not supported.

> expdp hr/hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 NETWORK_LINK=source_database_link
  DUMPFILE=network_export.dmp LOGFILE=network_export.log


NOLOGFILE:  Default: n. Specifies whether to suppress creation of a log file.


Specify NOLOGFILE=y to suppress the default behavior of creating a log file. Progress and error information is still written to the standard output device of any attached clients, including the client that started the original export operation. If there are no clients attached to a running job and you specify NOLOGFILE=y, you run the risk of losing important progress and error information.

> expdp hr/hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr.dmp NOLOGFILE=y

PARFILE : Default: none.  Specifies the name of an export parameter file.


Unlike dump and log files, which are created and written by the Oracle database, the parameter file is opened and read by the client running the expdp image. Therefore, a directory object name is neither required nor appropriate. The directory path is an operating system-specific directory specification. The default is the user's current directory. The PARFILE parameter cannot be specified within a parameter file.


You could then issue the following Export command to specify the parameter file:

> expdp hr/hr parfile=hr.par


QUERY: Default: none.   Enables you to filter the data that is exported by specifying a clause for a SQL SELECT statement, which is applied to all tables in the export job or to a specific table.

QUERY = [schema.][table_name:] query_clause

The query_clause is typically a WHERE clause for fine-grained row selection, but could be any SQL clause. For example, an ORDER BY clause could be used to speed up a migration from a heap-organized table to an index-organized table. If a [schema.] table_name is not supplied, the query is applied to (and must be valid for) all tables in the export job. A table-specific query overrides a query applied to all tables.

When the query is to be applied to a specific table, a colon must separate the table name from the query clause. More than one table-specific query can be specified, but only one can be specified per table. Oracle highly recommends that you place QUERY specifications in a parameter file; otherwise, you might have to use operating system-specific escape characters on the command line before each quotation mark. The query must be enclosed in single or double quotation marks.

The QUERY parameter cannot be used in conjunction with the following parameters:


> expdp hr/hr parfile=emp_query.par

The contents of the emp_query.par file are as follows:

QUERY=employees:'"WHERE department_id > 10 AND salary > 10000"' NOLOGFILE=y  DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=exp1.dmp 

SAMPLE: Default: None.  Allows you to specify a percentage of data to be sampled and unloaded from the source database.


This parameter allows you to export subsets of data by specifying the percentage of data to be sampled and exported. The sample_percent indicates the probability that a block of rows will be selected as part of the sample. It does not mean that the database will retrieve exactly that amount of rows from the table. The value you supply for sample_percent can be anywhere from .000001 up to, but not including, 100.

The sample_percent can be applied to specific tables. In the following example, 50% of the HR.EMPLOYEES table will be exported:


If you specify a schema, you must also specify a table. However, you can specify a table without specifying a schema; the current user will be assumed. If no table is specified, then the sample_percent value applies to the entire export job.

Note that you can use this parameter in conjunction with the Data Pump Import PCTSPACE transform, so that the size of storage allocations matches the sampled data subset.

The SAMPLE parameter is not valid for network exports.

> expdp hr/hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=sample.dmp SAMPLE=70


SCHEMAS: Default: current user's schema.  Specifies that you want to perform a schema-mode export. This is the default mode for Export.

SCHEMAS=schema_name [, ...]
> expdp hr/hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expdat.dmp SCHEMAS=hr,sh,oe 
STATUS: Default: 0. Specifies the frequency at which the job status display is updated.

If you supply a value for integer, it specifies how frequently, in seconds, job status should be displayed in logging mode. If no value is entered or if the default value of 0 is used, no additional information is displayed beyond information about the completion of each object type, table, or partition. This status information is written only to your standard output device, not to the log file (if one is in effect).

> expdp hr/hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 SCHEMAS=hr,sh STATUS=300


TABLES: Default: none.  Specifies that you want to perform a table-mode export.

TABLES=[schema_name.]table_name[:partition_name] [, ...]

Filtering can restrict what is exported using this mode. You can filter the data and metadata that is exported, by specifying a comma-delimited list of tables and partitions or subpartitions. If a partition name is specified, it must be the name of a partition or subpartition in the associated table. Only the specified set of tables, partitions, and their dependent objects are unloaded.

The table name that you specify can be preceded by a qualifying schema name. All table names specified must reside in the same schema. The schema defaults to that of the current user.The use of wildcards is supported for one table name per export operation. For example, TABLES=emp% would export all tables having names that start with 'EMP'.

Cross-schema references are not exported. For example, a trigger defined on a table within one of the specified schemas, but that resides in a schema not explicitly specified, is not exported. Types used by the table are not exported in table mode. This means that if you subsequently import the dump file and the TYPE does not already exist in the destination database, the table creation will fail. The use of synonyms as values for the TABLES parameter is not supported. For example, if the regions table in the hr schema had a synonym of regn, it would not be valid to use TABLES=regn. An error would be returned.

The export of table partitions is not supported when the NETWORK_LINK parameter is used. The export of tables that include wildcards in the table name is not supported if the table has partitions.

> expdp hr/hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=tables.dmp TABLES=employees,jobs,departments

The following example shows the use of the TABLES parameter to export partitions:

> expdp hr/hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=tables_part.dmp TABLES=sh.sales:sales_Q1_2000,sh.sales:sales_Q2_2000


TABLESPACES: Default: none.  Specifies a list of tablespace names to be exported in tablespace mode.

TABLESPACES=tablespace_name [, ...]

In tablespace mode, only the tables contained in a specified set of tablespaces are unloaded. If a table is unloaded, its dependent objects are also unloaded. If any part of a table resides in the specified set, then that table and all of its dependent objects are exported.

> expdp hr/hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=tbs.dmp 
TABLESPACES=tbs_4, tbs_5, tbs_6


TRANSPORT_FULL_CHECK:  Default: n. Specifies whether or not to check for dependencies between those objects inside the transportable set and those outside the transportable set. This parameter is applicable only to a transportable-tablespace mode export.


If TRANSPORT_FULL_CHECK=y, then Export verifies that there are no dependencies between those objects inside the transportable set and those outside the transportable set. The check addresses two-way dependencies. For example, if a table is inside the transportable set but its index is not, a failure is returned and the export operation is terminated. Similarly, a failure is also returned if an index is in the transportable set but the table is not.

If TRANSPORT_FULL_CHECK=n, then Export verifies only that there are no objects within the transportable set that are dependent on objects outside the transportable set. This check addresses a one-way dependency. For example, a table is not dependent on an index, but an index is dependent on a table, because an index without a table has no meaning. Therefore, if the transportable set contains a table, but not its index, then this check succeeds. However, if the transportable set contains an index, but not the table, the export operation is terminated.

> expdp hr/hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=tts.dmp 


TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES:  Default: none. Specifies that you want to perform a transportable-tablespace-mode export.

TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES=tablespace_name [, ...]

Use the TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES parameter to specify a list of tablespace names for which object metadata will be exported from the source database into the target database.

Note:   You cannot export transportable tablespaces and then import them into a database at a lower release level. The target database must be at the same or higher release level as the source database. Transportable jobs are not restartable. Transportable jobs are restricted to a degree of parallelism of 1.

> expdp hr/hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=tts.dmp


VERSION: Default: COMPATIBLE. Specifies the version of database objects to be exported. This can be used to create a dump file set that is compatible with a previous release of Oracle Database. Note that this does not mean that Data Pump Export can be used with versions of Oracle Database prior to 10.1. Data Pump Export only works with Oracle Database 10g release 1 (10.1) or later. The VERSION parameter simply allows you to identify the version of the objects being exported.

VERSION={COMPATIBLE | LATEST | version_string}

  • COMPATIBLE - This is the default value. The version of the metadata corresponds to the database compatibility level. Database compatibility must be set to 9.2 or higher.
  • LATEST - The version of the metadata corresponds to the database version.
  • version_string - A specific database version (for example, 10.0.0). In Oracle Database 10g, this value cannot be lower than 9.2.

> expdp hr/hr TABLES=hr.employees VERSION=LATEST DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=emp.dmp NOLOGFILE=y

No comments:

Post a Comment

Share your knowledge it really improves, don't show off...